Himalayan Mountains, the world's highest peaks, extended upto 240 km to 330 km in width and 2,400 km in length and lying in the northern frontiers of Bhutan, India, Pakistan, Burma and Nepal. The Himalayan system is divided into three parallel ranges- the greater Himalayas, the Lesser Himalayas and outer Himalayas. The world's three highest mountains the "Mount Everest" is seated in the greater Himalayan range, raising its peak to 8,848 meters on the China Nepal border; K2 or Godwin-Austen is lifting its crest to 8,611 on the China Pakistan border and Kangchenjunga raising it crest to 8,586 meters on India Nepal border
In the Himalayan region, there is an inhabitant of some endangered species. During the winter season heavy snowfall resist the rock climber of Himalayan hills to reach their destination while in summer one can experience the beautiful scenery of the mountains.
The Himalayas are relatively young folded mountains. According the Theory of Continental Drift, there were several phases in the genesis history of the Himalayas:
About 250 million years ago, there was a single super continent (Pangea) on Earth. It was surrounded by a large ocean.
About 200 million years ago, the super continent (Pangea) started to split into different land masses and moved apart. An extensive sea (Tethys) stretched along the latitudinal area presently occupied by the Himalayas.
The two land masses, the Eurasian (Angara) and the Indian sub-continent (Gondwana) moved closer and closer, then the collision happened and uplifted the highest & youngest mountain ranges on the Earth.
There were several phases in the Himalayas building process:
Phase I - Upper Cretaceous Period. About 70 million years ago, when the Gondwana plate and Angara plate began to converge and collide. The sea-bed was folded and raised into longitudinal ridges and valleys.
Phase II - Upper Eocene Period. About 65 million years ago, the collision was much more powerful. The Tethys bed was raised high enough to cause the final retreat of the sea and its sedimentary deposits were elevated into mountain ranges and intervening basins into large river valleys. The Great and Tibetan Himalayas were uplifted.
Phase III - Middle Miocene Period. About 25 million years ago, the Lower Himalayas were formed.
Phase IV - About 2 million years ago, the fourth Himalayan paroxysm occurred. Along with further elevation of the Himalayas ranges, compression forces squeezed and pushed southwards, The Sub Himalayas also raised and folded.
Phase V - Only 600,000 years ago, the final phase more or less determined the present geomorphic form of the Himalayan system.
However the India Plate continuously moving north at the rate of about 2 cm per year. The Himalayas are still geologically active and structurally unstable. For this reason, earthquakes are a frequent occurrence in the entire Himalayan region.
The Himalayas region is an important model for the study of geology and continents tectonics.
Trekking and Adventure Tour
Himalayan hills are the best place to experience hard trekking over the heavy snow. This is one of the most difficult job but showing one's enthusiasm over here one can experience lots of fun. The Kanchenjunga and the Nanda Devi hills are the toughest places for trekking but proper knowledge of climbing can help to do this difficult job.
Motorbiking and river rafting in the Himalayan ranges sounds strange but some ranges of Himalayan are specially developed to make tour more adventurous which makes this range different as compared to others.
National Parks The Himalayan ranges are the great habitat of wide variety of wildlife. Due to its different topography some of the rarest birds and animals are found in this region. Some well known national parks in Himalayan regions that are famous for endangered species are The Royal Chitwan Park, Jim Corbett National Park, Great Himalayan National Park, Royal Bardia National Park and Namdapha National Park.